Remote-Controlled Demining Machine
MV-4 Mini Mine Clearing System
Category: Mine Clearing Technology
DOK-ING MV-4 MINI MINE CLEARING SYSTEM
The MV-4 Mini Mine Clearing System is designed to clear various types of terrain containing anti-personnel (AP) mines. Because of its dimensions and maneuverability, it is suitable for demining of house yards, woods, forest paths, river banks and other types of terrain that are inaccessible to larger machines.
The operating tool for digging and mine clearance consists of a flail and roller mounted in front of the machine that destroy even the smallest anti-personnel mines and the most dangerous types of jumping/bouncing anti-personnel mines. Upon client’s request, the roller is replaced by two supporting wheels.
The system features high performance and provides safety for the deminers and dog teams that follow the mechanical clearance. The system is light at 5.31 metric tons, has excellent crosscountry performance and is operated by remote control.
The force of the flail hammers is calculated to enable cutting through dense vegetation and digging into soil to a depth of 20 cm. The combination of speed of movement of the machine and velocity of the flail determines the soil processing density.
The density of hammer impacts is an important factor for ensuring the safe destruction and elimination of mines. Original hydrostatic transmissions were designed for the track movement and for the movement and operation of the flail device. The MV-4 has a low center of gravity, and its low profile and aerodynamic shape minimize damage from explosions.
The MV-4 Mini Mine Clearing System was designed based on the development of the previous DOK-INGdemining systems: MV-1, MV-2 and MV-3. All of DOK-ING’s extensive field experience has been incorporated into the design of the MV-4 which is the latest model in the MV series.
Strict requirements have been set in the development of this light machine, such as: safe clearance of antipersonnel mines, intensive use in the most severe working conditions, ability to work on soil with a hardness rating in the first to fourth category, ability to work in extremely high temperatures, high performance, modular design, lowest possible maintenance requirements, and environmental protection.
MV-4 has been also used as a support tool to access and investigate areas of previous mine accidents/incidents. Military units can also use MV-4 mini flails to prepare safety lanes for support of their foot patrols in order to ensure that an area is free of mines and UXO. Our mechanical mine clearing machines could also be used in preparation of various military installations utilizing additional attachments available on request.
The operator easily operates the vehicle using a remote-control unit while being safely situated in an accompanying mine protected vehicle, shelter or some other location, where he is not exposed to injuries caused by activated mines.
Transport of MV-4 mini flail is quick and inexpensive.
The MV-4 can endure climactic conditions of -19ºC and +54ºC.
The MV-4 can function in up to 100% relative humidity.
The MV-4 is not susceptible to damage by rain, snow or hail.
The MV-4 is a completely developed, tested system in service since 2001.
Antipersonnel mines are destroyed by the force of impact of tools that are suitably shaped – hammers at the ends of flail chains. By flail rotation and hammer hitting, the loose soil layer of up to 20cm deep is dug up and mines are broken up or activated. Ground digging is based on the impact force of the flail hammers each with 0.6 – 0.9 kg of mass.
The machine has been developed exclusively according to real demonstrated demining requirements for maximum performance and resistance to mine detonations, and not by adapting an existing construction machine, loader type, or forestry machine. The self-supporting hull is constructed of armor plate of 8-10 mm thickness. The impact hammers are made of steel highly resistant to wear and detonations. The chains and hammers can be replaced quickly in case of damage.
The main functional characteristics of MV-4:
- Original design & construction based on extensive experience and study of user needs,
- Sound technology based on an integral approach,
- High mobility and flexibility,
- Safety of personnel,
- Cost-effectiveness and rationalism,
- Better functionality based on the practical experience of operating in real mine contaminated areas,
- Durability against mine blasts,
- Ease of transport.
|TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DOK-ING MV-4|
|1. Dimensions (L x W x H) mm|
|Prime Mover (minimum length L1)||3005 x 1530 x 1470 mm|
|With clearing arms pulled in (medium length L2)||3005 (+1450) x 1530 (+485) x 1470 =|
|4455 x 2015 x 1470 mm|
|With clearing arms extended (maximum length L3)||4455 (+690) x 2015 x 1470 =|
|5145 x 2015 x 1470 mm|
|2. MV-4 Clearance|
|Minimum (ground level to drive gearbox protection)||145 mm|
|Maximum (up to bottom armor protection)||260 mm|
|3. Weight||5.31 metric tons (dry weight)|
|5.56 metric tons (w/ fuel & lubricants)|
|4. Engine||6-cylinder, in-line, turbo-charged diesel|
|4-stroke, direct injection, water cooled|
|Engine Designation||Perkins 1106C-E60 TA|
|Power rating||129 kW (173.82HP) at 2200 rpm|
|Direction of rotation||Clockwise|
|Torque||628Nm at 1400 rpm|
|Engine weight||505 kg net (dry), 535 kg (wet)|
|Oil pressure||276 – 414 kN-mP2P|
|Min. oil pressure at max. RPM, piston cooled||207 (280) kN/mP2P|
|Fuel capacity||70 liters (D2)|
|Fuel consumption (depends upon terrain)||15 - 25 liters/hour|
|5. Power Transmission||Hydrostatic System|
|To tracks and flail||Independent drives for propulsion and|
|Hydraulic Fluid||200 liters|
|Track gearbox oil||2 x 0.6 liters|
|Working speed||0.5 - 2 km/hour|
|Maximum speed||5 km/hour|
|Flail rotation velocity||0 - 900 RPM|
|Flail diameter||820 mm|
|Mine clearing width||1725 mm|
|Digging depth||More than 20 cm|
|Protection||Hardbox 400 Steel Armor Plates|
|6. Gearbox (multiplying)||Stiebel 4362, I=0.697|
|Gearbox oil||2.6 liters|
|7. Mine clearing capacity||944 - 2184 m²/hour, depending on terrain|
ADVANTAGES OF THE DOK-ING MV-4
The MV-4 was designed to perform one task only – demining. It is not a modified construction machine or tank. In addition to machine building, DOK-ING is also the largest private commercial demining company in the South-East European region. The MV-4 is the 5th model in the MV series of demining machines. All of DOK-ING’sdemining experience in the Republic of Croatia following the recent war has been incorporated into the design of theMV-4. To date, over 30 million m² of terrain has been mechanically demined by DOK-ING machines.
Because of its small dimensions, very good maneuverability, high engine power, and low track-ground pressure, the DOK-ING MV-4 can work year round in almost all conditions. The clearing productivity is up to 2200 m² per hour.
The majority of repairs can be carried out by the operator/mechanic in the field. The entire working tool (flail with supporting wheels or flail with roller and shield) can be replaced within few hours. Because DOK-ING’s demining experience has been incorporated into the design of the MV-4, all sections of the machine that are susceptible to explosion damage can be changed quickly and easily. MV-4’s low profile reduces its susceptibility to shrapnel damage.
- The MV-4 has a low fuel consumption compared to powerful engine and high productivity rate. Only one operator/mechanic is required for transport, operation and repairs/maintenance. The low cost of the MV-4 and low operating and maintenance costs ensure a quick return on investment. Our experience in commercial demining in Croatia is that the period for return on investment is about one year.
- Because of the short training period for personnel, education costs for MV-4 operators are extremely low.
MOBILITY AND MANEUVERABILITY
- The MV-4’s small dimensions and low track-ground pressure allow the machine to pass over difficult terrain such as ditches, urban areas, canals, etc.
- MV-4 can drive and work on highly inclined terrain both transversely and longitudinally: clearing of transverse slopes of 35º up and down, driving on transversal slopes of 45º up and down, clearing longitudinal slopes of 20º, and driving on longitudinal slopes of 35º
- MV-4 can clear very close to obstacles such as buildings and other structures both when moving in parallel (25 cm) and perpendicular direction (75 cm).
- The working tool can be raised, lowered, extended and retracted to enable to machine to navigate over difficult terrain such as ditches, obstacles, canals etc. MV-4 can drive through water to a depth of 45 cm and can turn 360º on a single point.
Our machine is also able to pass over a ditch 0.5 m wide and 0.3 m deep, and vertical obstacles of about 0.3 m in height. MV-4 easy wades through a depth of at least 0.45 m of water without any special actions taken by the operator. MV-4 drives both in transversal and lateral inclinations. It is also able to perform self-recovery from a ditch/channel by using its hydraulic arms (extend/retract positions).
- The MV-4 normally uses one tool – a rotating flail designed to activate or shatter AP mines. Testing has demonstrated that MV-4 has a rate of effectiveness of about 98.5% thus greatly increasing the safety and speed of subsequent manual/dog-team demining.
- A number of practical tests have also proved the effectiveness of two big supporting wheels attached at the back of the clearing tool set to reduce a ground resistance and get easier through while operating in soft, wet or muddy soil. If a client requests, one more additional clearing tool – a steel roller might be installed instead of supporting wheels. Under such circumstances, the roller is designed to destroy any remaining explosive material.
- Although MV-4 is designed for destruction of anti-personnel mines, our experience has shown that, when working properly, in the event an anti-tank mine is detonated, damage is limited to the working tool which can be replaced within a period of few hours.
The durability of the MV-4 Mini Mine Clearing System is assessed to be about 3-5 years depending on the operational conditions in which machine is used, intensity of operation (number of operational hours per month and annually, number of detonations made, etc.) and professionalism and knowledge of the personnel responsible for operating and maintaining the MV-4 mini-flail. All of the MV-3 machines (MV-4’s predecessor introduced in 2000) and MV-4 machines are still in operation today.
The MV-4 Mini Mine Clearing System is provided with the special anti-ballistic protection – the Swedish HARDOX 400 armor plates. The MV-4 is highly resistant to the fragmentation of landmines and standard 7.62 mm NATO ball ammunition. MV-4’s low profile reduces its susceptibility to shrapnel damage.
ABILITY TO WITHSTAND AT MINE DETONATION
Although the MV-4 Mini Mine Clearing System is primarily designed for clearance of anti-personnel mines, there is always a possibility of encountering anti-tank mines during its operation. On several occasions we actually did encounter various anti-tank mines and smashed them without detonation due to the high velocity of the tools rotation.
- Comment: So far, we have already smashed more than 45 AT mines of various types (mostly TMA-3 and TMA-4) without detonating them. We have also experienced seven detonations of TMM-1 anti-tank metal mines.
In all instances, the damage to the MV-3 andMV-4 machines was within the limits of expectations. If the entire flail tool needs to be replaced because of an accidental AT mine detonation, the approximate down time is about 1 hour assuming that all parts and tools are available on-site (i.e. 2 x 14 bolts M14 have to be unfastened to remove a damaged flail unit).
The MV-4 strongest ability to withstand AT mine detonations has been proved at the Swedish EOD and Demining Center (SWEDEC) in Eksjö during July 2004.
MV-4 is not intended for anti-tank mine clearance, however, in practice in mine clearance projects, anti-tank mines were destroyed by the MV-4 both with and without detonation. After detonation of anti-tank mines, the working device of the flail might be extensively damaged but the driving mechanism always remains in good working order. In this case, the working part of the flail needs to be replaced with a spare one.
The MV-4 is easily accessible for inspection, maintenance, trouble-shooting, repair and/or replacement. Damage repair can be carried out on the location of the mine detonation incident.
The tools required for flail tool replacement are standard wrenches and some specially modified tools. A spare flail unit will be supplied as an extra. If the entire flail unit needs to be replaced because of an accidental AT mine detonation, the repair time is approximately 1 hour assuming that all parts and tools are available on-site.
In the case of an A/P mine detonation, normally either no damage or minimal damage will occur. Spare chains with hammers and standard wrenches are sufficient. Damage resulting from AP mine detonations is usually minor in nature and can be corrected with a minimum expenditure of time and materials.
The majority of repairs can be carried out by the operator/mechanic in the field. All sections of the machine that are susceptible to explosion damage can be changed quickly and easily.
PARTS AND SERVICE
The major components not produced by DOK-INGsuch as motor and hydraulics are produced by large, international firms thus ensuring long-term availability of spare parts. We have our own in-house service capabilities and can send a team at short notice to any location in the world. We maintain adequate stocks of parts on our premises – both those produced by DOK-ING and outsourced ones.
The MV-4 is operated by remote-control from a safe distance, from the protection of the armoured support vehicle, or behind solid structures. In over 9 years of operation with MV machines, no injuries have ever been suffered by either DOK-ING operators or other personnel, or by any other persons in areas cleared by our machines.
The MV-4 is extremely simple to operate by remote control. Our experience has shown that most people can learn within a period of several hours to operate the machine.
- Transport of the MV-4 is simple and inexpensive. The machine can be loaded onto an ordinary truck or tractor-trailer and transported without the need for any special permits or police escort.
- The approximate time for unloading and preparing MV-4 for work is 6 minutes.
- For transport over large distances and internationally, the machine and all necessary spare parts and accessories can be packed into a standard 20’ shipping container. Therefore, it does not have any extraordinary logistic or infrastructure requirements.
- The MV-4 machine also is fitted with 4 eye-hook lifting points.
To date more than 80 mini flails of MV-family have been produced: 4 MV-2, 5 MV-3, 1 MV-10, 1 MV-20, 6 MVB, 3 MVD, and 65 MV-4 were purchased by various organizations/demining companies including:
- the Swedish Ministry of Defense - 5 units,
- the Irish (military) Directorate of Engineering - 2 units,
- Croatian Ministry of Defense (MOD) - 2 units,
- US Army - 21 units,
- Croatian Mine Action Center (CROMAC) - 4 units,
- Iraqi National Mine Action Authority (NMAA) – 4 units,
- Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD) - 5 units,
- Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) - 3 units,
- Mechem Consultants - 1 unit,
- Maavarim-Civil Engineering Ltd. - 1 unit,
- REASeuro Worldwide Ltd. – 1 unit,
- Croatian commercial demining companies;
- RU-RU Ltd. – 1 unit,
- TT-KA Ltd. – 1 unit,
- AVANGARD Ltd. – 1 unit,
- CENTURION Ltd. – 1 unit,
- ARKA-SERVIS Ltd. – 1 unit,
- ENIGMA Ltd. – 1 unit.
It should be mentioned that all MV-type mini flails and excavators in the possession of “DOK-ING” have been tested by the Croatian Mine Action Center (CROMAC). This makes them automatically certified for operation in all other countries of the South-East Europe including the Republic of Slovenia, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro and the Republic of Albania.
The MV-4 mini flail has been also rigorously tested and evaluated by SWEDEC (Swedish EOD and Demining Center) and the US Army.
Two agreements were signed at the end of 2003 for the supply of 19 units to the US Army. An ESM (Engineering Services Memorandum) should also soon be signed that will cover the acquisition of additional flail systems, on-site support, spares and design engineering services.